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These readings will help you fulfill your general medical competency requirements for the “Must know and apply the basic sciences” category.

Neurosurgical Readings

NSu 8324 – Readings in Neurobiology
This course is designed to provide basic neuroscience underpinnings of neurosurgery for residents. Topics covered include neuro-anatomy of the brain and spinal cord, as well as neurophysiology, neurochemistry and integrative neuroscience.

In-house exams covering these topics will be administered quarterly. Prior to each quarter, residents will be given topic areas in which to focus their studies. To prepare for the exam, a suggested reading list of textbooks, papers, online material, etc., will be provided for self-directed learning.

IMPORTANT: mastering this material will satisfy the competency requirement that residents must “know and apply the basic sciences” that are appropriate for each residency program.

Module 1: Cell Biology of Neurons and Glia

Module 1: Cell Biology of Neurons and Glia

  • Cytology of neurons and glia
  • Ion channels
  • Membrane potentials
  • Synaptic transmission
  • Neurotransmitters

Suggested Readings:

  • Principles of Neural Science, Ed. by Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessell
  • Molecular Basis of Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience, Ed. by Nestler, Hyman, and Malenka
  • Basic Neurochemistry, Ed. by Segal, Albers, Brady, and Price

Online Resources:

Module 2: Sensory Systems

Module 2: Sensory Systems

Somatic sensation

  • Spinothalamic pain pathways
  • Dorsal column pathways for touch sensation
  • Thalamocortical pathways for touch and pain

Vision

  • Retinal organization
  • Retino-geniculate pathways
  • Cortical representation of vision

Hearing

  • Anatomical organization of the cochlea
  • Transduction of sound sensation

Smell and taste

Suggested Readings:

  • Principles of Neural Science, Ed. by Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessell
  • Neuroanatomy Through Clinical Cases by Blumenfeld

Online Resources:

Module 3: Motor, Cognitive, and Autonomic Systems

Module 3: Motor, Cognitive, and Autonomic Systems

  • Motor Systems
  • Spinal reflexes
  • Vestibular system
  • Motor cortex and voluntary movement
  • Basal ganglia
  • Cerebellum

Cognition and the Limbic System

  • Autonomic Systems
  • Sympathetic autonomic nervous system
  • Parasympathetic autonomic nervous system

Suggested Readings:

  • Principles of Neural Science, Ed. by Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessell
  • Neuroanatomy Through Clinical Cases by Blumenfeld

Online Resources:

Module 4: Molecular Genetics, Brain Tumors, Neuroimmunology, and Cutting Edge Developments

Module 4: Molecular Genetics, Brain Tumors, Neuroimmunology, and Cutting Edge Developments

  • Molecular Genetic of the Nervous System
  • Hallmarks of Cancer
  • Molecular Genetics of Glioma
  • Normal and Brain Tumor Stem Cells
  • Basic Immunology
  • Mechanisms and Principles of Immunity in the brain
  • Cutting Edge: recent clinical trials and emerging trends

Suggested Readings:

  • For Basic Immunology: Immunobiology 5th ed., Janeway, Charles A.; Travers, Paul; Walport, Mark; Shlomchik, Mark, New York and London: Garland Science; c2001 (Tip: focus on function and biology of T cell and NK cell; how are they similar and how are they different)
  • Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. The hallmarks of cancer. Cell. 2000;100:57-70
  • Sehgal A. Molecular changes during the genesis of human gliomas. Semin Surg Oncol. 1998;14:3-12
  • Ransohoff RM, Kivisakk P, Kidd G. Three or more routes for leukocyte migration into the central nervous system. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003;3:569-581
  • Vescovi AL, Galli R, Reynolds BA. Brain tumor stem cells. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006;6:425-436
  • Hussain SF, Heimberger AB. Immunotherapy for human glioma: innovative approaches and recent results.Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2005;5:777-790
  • King GD, Curtin JF, Candolfi M, Kroeger K, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Gene therapy and targeted toxins for glioma. Curr Gene Ther. 2005;5:535-557.

Online Resources:

DNA Interactive Websites
http://www.dnai.org
http://www.dnaftb.org
http://www.dnalc.org/home.html

Molecular Biology Webcast
http://webcast.berkeley.edu/courses/archive.php?seriesid=1906978371

Cancer Interactive Website
http://www.insidecancer.org/

Wikipedia – Science Portal
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Science

Final Self-exam Questions

Final Self-exam Questions

After completing the four modules, you can access the self-exam questions by going to the MyU portalwww.myu.umn.edu and signing in. Then go to My USpace where the courses are listed and find NSu 8324 – Neurobiology Self-Examination Questions.